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The Victor label was launched in 1901 by the Victor Talking Machine Company in the USA.

The label was introduced in Japan in 1927, when the Victor Talking Machine Company established the Gramophone Co. Of Japan Ltd.

The Victor label was an American corporation, the leading American producer of phonographs and phonograph records and one of the leading phonograph companies in the world at the time. It was headquartered in Camden, New Jersey.

The company was founded by Eldridge R. Johnson, who had previously made phonographs to play Emile Berliner's Berliner Gramophone records. Some sources also claim Berliner as a co-founder; others say Berliner was never connected with the Victor company, though that may have been part of a ruse by Johnson to defeat the Zonophone lawsuits that had put Berliner Gramophone out of business (in the U.S., but not in Canada, the UK, or Germany) and threatened Johnson's phonograph business. (Zonophone had used patent ruses to defeat Berliner, the inventor of disc records, whose technology Zonophone had copied.) In any event, Victor ultimately acquired the remaining assets of Berliner Gramophone; it also acquired Zonophone after defeating it in court.

In 1929 the Victor Talking Machine Company was acquired by the Radio Corporation Of America. Over the next decade, Victor labels reflected many changes in manufacturer credits, including "Victor Talking Machine Division, Radio-Victor Company of America" (1929), "RCA Victor Company, Inc." (1930-34), "RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc." (1934-39), "RCA-Victor Division of RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc." (1939-42), and finally, "Radio Corporation Of America" (from 1942). At this time, the Victor label in the US became RCA Victor.

In Japan, the Victor label continued to exist. Currently it is owned by Tokyo company Victor Entertainment, Inc.