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Hip Hop / Rap:
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop, rap music, or hip-hop music, is a music genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling (or synthesis), and beatboxing.
While often used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including DJing and scratching, beatboxing, and instrumental tracks.

Creation of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap. It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching. Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly used by other artists such as The Sugarhill Gang in "Rapper's Delight".
Universal Zulu Nation founder Afrika Bambaataa is credited with first using the term to describe the subculture in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it was a derogatory term to describe the type of music. The first use of the term in print was in The Village Voice, by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip_hop_music

Hip Hop / Rap:
Hip-Hop-Musik (Existenz von verschiedenen Schreibweisen) hat ihre Wurzeln in der schwarzen Funk- und Soul-Musik. Der Rap (Sprechgesang), der aus der jamaikanischen Tradition des Toasting entstand, das Samplen und das Scratchen sind weitere Merkmale dieser aus den schwarzen Ghettos der USA stammenden Musik. Der bedeutungsfreie Begriff Hip-Hop geht (je nach Quelle) entweder auf Lovebug Starski oder DJ Hollywood zurück, beide Pioniere der Form.
Hip-Hop bezeichnet nicht ausschließlich eine Musikrichtung, sondern auch die Jugendkultur Hip-Hop mit den Elementen Rap (MCing), DJing, Breakdance, Graffiti-Writing und Beatboxing.

Generell sind die 1970er-Jahre im Hip-Hop das Jahrzehnt der Erfindungen. Kool DJ Herc beginnt 1973 als erster DJ, nur den Beat eines Funk-, Soul- oder Discostückes zu wiederholen, anstatt das ganze Stück zu spielen und zwei verschiedene Beats zu montieren (das sogenannte Beatjuggling). Auf seinen Block Partys tauchen auch die ersten B-Boys zum neuen Breakdance auf. Afrika Bambaataa gehörte zu den ersten DJs, die sich durch Kool DJ Herc inspirieren ließen. 1976 veranstaltete er seine erste Party, seine Begleitcrew aus Breakern nannte er Zulu-Kings und Zulu-Queens, aus der später die Zulu-Nation hervorging. Ab 1976 entwickelt Grandmaster Flash weitere wichtige DJ-Techniken wie das Cutting (das zum Beat parallele Einspielen von Tracks), das Backspinning (wo die Platte zur Wiederholung eines bestimmten Abschnitts schnell rückwärts gedreht wird) und das Phasing (bei dem durch die geringfügige Verringerung der Geschwindigkeit eines der beiden Plattenteller ein Phaseneffekt erzeugt wird). Der von Grandmaster Flash entdeckte Grandwizard Theodore schließt die Zeit der Erfindungen der elementaren DJ-Techniken kurz darauf mit der Erfindung der bekanntesten Technik, dem Scratchen, ab.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip-Hop


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